Wednesday, 30 March 2016


Premium Bonds will give a poorer return from the June draw. So are they still a good place for your savings?

Premium bonds are good if you fulfil three conditions
  • You can buy the maximum £50,000 or close to it. 
  • You pay higher or additional rate income tax. 
  • You have used up your personal savings allowance with interest on other savings outside ISAs.
How do they work?
Each month the £60 billion of bonds earn interest, currently at an annual rate of 1.35%. But that will fall to 1.25% from 1 June 2016. Each month the interest of £65 million or so is put into a prize fund. That total is then shared at random among the bondholders as prizes. Each bond has a 1 in 26,000 chance of winning a prize in each monthly draw. Those odds fall to one in 30,000 from June. Prizes are paid tax-free so the return is better for higher rate (40%) or additional rate (45%) taxpayers. 

At the moment the fund is divided so that 98% of the prizes are for £25 which uses up 84% of the money. Two and a quarter million £25 prizes were paid in March 2016. Just over 18,000 prizes each of £50 and £100 were also paid. Those three prizes use 90% of the prize money and accounted for 99.75% of the prizes.

From June those three prizes will still take the same proportion of the money and prizes. But the number of £50 and £100 prizes will treble to more than 64,000 each. The number of £25 prizes will fall to 1.9m (93% of the prizes) and take 75% of the money. 

Higher prizes range from £500 to £1 million. Although winning a million is a nice thought, forget it. You won’t ever win that prize. Even with the maximum £50,000 bonds you would have only an even chance of winning a million after 50,000 years. That was when when humans stopped having sex with Neanderthals and 10,000 years before we started painting in caves. From June the odds of winning the second prizes of £100,000 are the same as the million pound prizes.

Interest rates
When considering the actual interest earned in any realistic timeframe it is those three lower prizes that should be counted. That means the effective interest rate - the money used for the prizes you might win - is 1.13% from June compared with 1.19% before the changes. That is equivalent to earning 1.41% taxable interest for a basic rate taxpayer, 1.88% for a higher rate taxpayer and 2.05% for a top rate taxpayer. 

Those are not bad rates for an instant access account. Money in Premium Bonds can be taken out without notice at any time.

With 50,000 bonds you will expect to win 20 of those lower prizes a year – down from 23. Almost all of them for £25. Of course chance will not produce an even return. But over time that should be the average. Here is the monthly two and a half year record of one large holding I am familiar with 1,1,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,3,5,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,0,0,0,2,2,1,2,3,3,1,1. All £25 except one for £100.

Even with a maximum holding you can only expect to win £500 or £1000 once every 20 years. The larger prizes of £5000 and more are far more sparse. If you had bought £50,000 premium bonds to celebrate Alfred the Great coming to the throne in 871 or London falling to the Vikings the following year you would have expected one larger prize by now. You will wait another 1144 years for the next.

With smaller amounts of bonds, prizes of course are much rarer. £100 gives you an even chance of winning a £25 prize every 27 years. With one bond bought when when Stonehenge was built you might have expected about two prizes by now.

So Premium Bonds are still good for people who can afford to buy the maximum who are higher and top rate taxpayers and who have used up their personal savings allowance with interest on other savings. That probably means £25,000 to £50,000 in other savings products on top of any cash in ISAs. Additional rate taxpayers do not get the personal savings allowance. More than half the bonds are held by people who have at least 30,000 of them.

ERNIE (Electronic Random Number Indicator Equipment) who draws the winning bonds each month is not a computer. However hard they try computers cannot produce genuine truly random numbers. So ERNIE uses a process which was invented by a Bletchley Park codebreaker called transistor thermal noise to create truly random events which are then counted and combined in turn into bond numbers. Every month the Government Actuary checks the prize list for randomness before the prizes are paid.

Because every bond really does have an equal chance of of winning there is no point in cashing in 'unlucky' bonds and buying new ones. Doing that also means there is a month between selling and buying when the bonds are not in the draw. So it worsens the odds of winning.

Personal Savings Allowance
The new personal savings allowance means the interest on savings is tax free up to £1000 for basic rate taxpayers and £500 for higher rate taxpayers. So the tax-free prizes are of most value to those who have other savings which have used up those allowances. Additional rate taxpayers do not get the personal savings allowance. So premium bonds are very good for them.

You can buy Premium Bonds online at where you can also check for prizes and trace lost bonds. You can also buy them by phone or post. You must be at least 16 years old. Parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents can buy them for children but only parents can do that online.

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31 March 2016